What is a sign of any state? Signs of the state: table
The word "state" is used by people in everyday speech. To properly use it, you need to figure out what is a sign of any state. From the correct use of the term depends on whether the thoughts will be convicted in words, and what semantic load they will bear the interlocutor.
Meaning of the term "state"
The concept of "state" is used in a broad and narrow sense. For the first characteristic is the identification of the state with a particular country. For example, the statements: “the member states of the European Union” or “the state of Mozambique” give an idea of the countries with their peoples. Such a broad meaning of the word was formed in antiquity and became widespread in the Middle Ages. In a narrower understanding, the term is perceived as one of the constituent institutions of the political system, which holds the highest power in society. Such a meaning was put into this word in the XVIII-XIX centuries.Then there was the formation of a civil society, and the need arose to separate state institutions from the people and non-state institutions of the political system.
The state appears at a certain stage of development of human society. It arises as a political institution, as an organization of power for governing society. It is characterized by common signs. The states were formed during long historical periods, and now two views, two theories have been established.
The first concept states that the state is a natural stage in the formation of a society. Its eminent founders - T.Gobbs and J. Locke - insisted that the state arises when concluding an agreement between people. Citizens transfer part of their rights to the state as an institution that has taken upon itself the defense of the territory and the people living on it. It acts as a security guarantor and forms a certain social group of managers-officials.
The founder of the second theory is Plato. His ideas were developed by F. Nietzsche and D. Hume. They argued the failure of the first concept.In their opinion, the state is the result of the conquest by a small group of the general population. Well-armed and militant people may well conquer a large number of poorly organized peoples. Most likely, both ways of state formation were present in the history of mankind. Originally, human society created a single political organization. Together with the development of society and the evolution of the state, other political organizations began to emerge, such as parties, unions, blocs or movements.
The state is the core of the political system
This is the most important institution of the socio-political system of society, which is its core. He has the supreme power in society, which is a sign of any state. It, managing the life activity of people, maintains order and stability within its framework. It regulates the relations between the social strata, between the individual and the state, and is responsible for the safety of people.
For the execution of the functions entrusted to the state, a special social management apparatus is created. From a historical point of view, the state as a social organization thatpossessing supreme power over the population within the boundaries of a certain territory, solves common problems for people and seeks to preserve the general order and achieve the common good. Signs of the state include structural characteristics expressed in an extensive network of institutions and organizations that perform legislative, executive and judicial functions. The power of the state is considered sovereign (supreme) in relation to all organizations and people in the subordinate territory. State power is independent and independent from other countries. The state at the international level represents the interests of the whole society, all its citizens. It has unique signs and attributes that are unparalleled in other political organizations.
The state is characterized by a complex organizational structure. The most important feature of the state is the presence of the following elements: legislative bodies, executive and administrative institutions, judicial structures, the armed forces, state security and public order bodies, and so on. Such diversity provides the state with the opportunityalong with the main functions, to perform the function of institutionalized violence (coercion) in relation to large social groups and individual citizens. A vivid example is the political repression of the times of the USSR, to which entire nations (Germans, Crimean Tatars, Ingushs and others) and certain social strata (the bourgeoisie, peasants-kulaks, merchants and others) were subjected.
Form of government: monarchy
It is customary to single out two basic forms of government — the monarchy and the republic. When characterizing each type, the signs of the state are used. The table gives an idea of the general features and differences.
Monarchy is a state in which the supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person (monarch). Usually it is inherited, but it can be elective or hereditary elective. There is a constitutional and absolute monarchy.
Under a constitutional monarchy, the power of the ruler is limited to the constitution. Such a restriction is expressed either in a parliamentary or dualistic character. In the first case, the monarch has no power, remaining only a representative body, and the government reports to parliament.In the second case, the power of the monarch is limited to parliament and the constitution in the area of enacting laws, but the governor is free to appoint a government and act within the limits of the adopted restrictions.
Under absolute monarchy, the power of the monarch is not limited to anything. He is the absolute ruler, all authorities are accountable to him.
Form of government: Republic
This form involves the participation of citizens in management. This is manifested in the election of candidates to the highest authorities. They are elected for a specific term and report on the results of their activities to their constituents.
It is customary to single out the types of republics: presidential (full power is concentrated in the hands of the head of state), parliamentary (power in the hands of parliament, the winning party claims leadership in the government). A mixed republic is based on the division of powers between the president, the prime minister and parliament.
The main signs of the state
From its inception to the present, countries have experienced many forms and types of power. But it is possible to single out the general features inherent in any state.Their presence or absence allows us to conclude which political institution is being discussed: about the state or not.
Consider the signs of the state. The table shows them in compressed form.
|Public authority||Power, which is separated from society and does not coincide with the social organization. The political management of society is carried out by a specially prepared stratum of people, which is a sign of any state.|
|Sovereignty||The state is characterized by supreme power over institutions, organizations and individuals located on the territory of the state.|
|Right to lawful use of force||
The state has a monopoly on limiting the rights and freedoms of a citizen legally. To achieve these goals, the state creates special power structures, which include the courts, the police and the army.
|Tax collection||For the maintenance of public authorities necessary funds that the state receives when collecting taxes and fees from citizens. The hallmark of the state is the legalized collection of funds to the state treasury. Receipts in the state treasury are spent on defense, economic and social policies and other needs of the state.|
|Citizenship||A person has a mandatory membership in the state. From the moment of birth, he receives citizenship. If membership in other political organizations (parties, associations, etc.) is not considered mandatory, then citizenship is a mandatory attribute of any person.|
|Representation of the whole society||
The state declares the right to represent society as a separate unit and the right to protect the interests of the whole society. Reality shows that not a single state could reflect the interests of all social strata of the population and every citizen of society.
Signs of the state include the most essential characteristics of this political institution. For the first time, high school students will learn about them in social studies classes.
The main attributes of the state
It has distinctive attributes, as well as the main signs of the state. These include:
- Territory. It is determined by state borders that divide the areas of distribution of the power of sovereign states.
- Population. Residents of a limited territory are considered nationals of the state. They are obliged to comply with the laws and submit to the authorities of a particular country.The state undertakes to protect them.
- Manadgement Department. It includes the authorities and a special layer of officials who perform the functions of power. The state legislature issues laws, formulates rules that become binding for the entire population of a given state.
The characteristic features of the state influence the activity of the state, the fulfillment of external and internal tasks by it. Each activity involves a set of functions. Internal functions:
- company management;
- the achievement of a compromise of interests of various sectors of society and the satisfaction of their needs;
- the preservation of power in their hands.
External features include:
- representation of interests of all people;
- protection of the territory;
- the preservation of the sovereignty of power;
- acting as an equal subject of international relations.
The relationship of the concept of "state" with others
In everyday speech, the concepts of "state", "country" and "society" are used as synonymous words. The term “government” is often used along with them.To understand their differences, list the signs of the state. Although these concepts have common features, there are significant differences between them.
A country is a cultural-geographical term. Its competent use implies a description of the territory, its climate and natural areas, a description of the population with its national and religious differences. The subject of our review is a political concept, which is a sign of any state. It explains the political characteristics of a particular country, including the form of government, political regime, and territorial structure.
Society is a broader term than the state. The layer of professional managers is separated from the rest of the society and has a certain independence.
Government is a narrower term than a state. This is only a tool for the realization of the political power of the state - administrative and executive bodies. Governments are changing: some are leaving, others are coming. The state is a more stable institution of the political system.