What is a flood?
Flooding occupies a leading position among natural disasters. What is a flood? This is a large-scale water flooding of large land areas, which can occur for various reasons.
About the causes of such a disaster, see our article Causes of Floods.
Types of floods
There are two main types of floods - river and sea. The first occurs as a result of the flood of the river bed, and the second - due to hurricanes or tsunamis. There are also these types of natural disasters:
- High water is a type of flood that occurs as a result of a river bed spill, with repeated periodicity, most often in the spring. When flood floods lowlands.
- Flood is a type similar to high water, but it is characterized by short duration. Floods can occur several times a year, the reason is the rapid melting of snow, heavy rains, etc.
- Congestion - flooding that occurs due to blockage of the river bed with ice floes during the spring ice drift.
- Zazhor is a type of flooding that occurs during freezing during the winter, when loose ice clogs the narrow fates of the channel. Because of this, the river level rises upstream.
- Wind surge - arises from the action of strong air currents in places where rivers flow into the seas, large lakes or reservoirs.
- Floods that arise from the breakthrough of artificial dams or dams.
The scale of flooding is classified as follows:
- Low - cover small areas, mainly coastal areas, no more than 10% of farmland is flooded.
- Dangerous - cover relatively large areas (10-20% of farmland).
- Particularly dangerous - they flood more than half of the territories of agricultural lands, as well as populated areas.
- Catastrophic - cause damage to ecosystems, floods more than 70% of the land, and can lead to death.