What is a flood?

Galina Mirzahmedova
Galina Mirzahmedova
January 25, 2015
What is a flood?

Flooding occupies a leading position among natural disasters. What is a flood? This is a large-scale water flooding of large land areas, which can occur for various reasons.

About the causes of such a disaster, see our article Causes of Floods.

Types of floods

There are two main types of floods - river and sea. The first occurs as a result of the flood of the river bed, and the second - due to hurricanes or tsunamis. There are also these types of natural disasters:

  • High water is a type of flood that occurs as a result of a river bed spill, with repeated periodicity, most often in the spring. When flood floods lowlands.
  • Flood is a type similar to high water, but it is characterized by short duration. Floods can occur several times a year, the reason is the rapid melting of snow, heavy rains, etc.
  • Congestion - flooding that occurs due to blockage of the river bed with ice floes during the spring ice drift.
  • Zazhor is a type of flooding that occurs during freezing during the winter, when loose ice clogs the narrow fates of the channel. Because of this, the river level rises upstream.
  • Wind surge - arises from the action of strong air currents in places where rivers flow into the seas, large lakes or reservoirs.
  • Floods that arise from the breakthrough of artificial dams or dams.

Scale floods

The scale of flooding is classified as follows:

  • Low - cover small areas, mainly coastal areas, no more than 10% of farmland is flooded.
  • Dangerous - cover relatively large areas (10-20% of farmland).
  • Particularly dangerous - they flood more than half of the territories of agricultural lands, as well as populated areas.
  • Catastrophic - cause damage to ecosystems, floods more than 70% of the land, and can lead to death.

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