Unambiguous and polysemantic words: definition and examples of use

In Russian by the number of lexicalvalues ​​are single-valued and multi-valued words. Monosemantic, or single-valued, are words that have only one lexical meaning: appendicitis, therapeutic, bandage, birch, satin, felt-tip pen, smell and others.

single-valued and multi-valued words

There are several types of monosemantic words.

1. Names own, which are called single objects. Examples: Moscow, Petrov, Vasily, Seine, Europe, Great Britain, Baikal.

2. New (newly emerged) words: foam rubber, pizza, briefing, dederon, lavsan.

3. Words that have a narrow meaning: trolley, binoculars, a suitcase, a can, turquoise, beads, ship, analgin.

4. Myoma, allergy, gastritis, tonsillitis, noun, verb - all these terms are unambiguous.

And polysemantic words (polysemantic)are often found in Russian. Among those values ​​that they possess, one is taken as the main, the main, and the rest - as the derivatives of the main, initial value. In explanatory dictionaries, the basic meaning is always indicated first, followed by the numbered derivative values.

lexicon single-valued and polysemantic wordsVocabulary: unambiguous and polysemantic words in the context

The ambiguity of the word is realized in the context of(speech), which clarifies one of the meanings of the polysemantic word. Usually, even a narrow context (for example, word combinations) is enough to clarify the meaning of multi-valued words. For example, a quiet exclamation - quiet, quiet disposition - quiet, quiet ride - slow, quiet weather - calm, quiet breathing - smooth, etc. A word taken out of context is perceived in the main meaning, in which it is most often used in speech .

Unambiguous and polysemantic words: examples of use in context

Derived values ​​are revealed in speech, that is incombination with other words. For example, the word "go" is perceived in the main meaning - "to move, stepping with your feet" (Petya walked alone for a long time). But the context helps to distinguish different meanings of this word. "The clock goes on, the days pass after them" (go - go, flow (about time)). "The path was going through the forest" (to go - to have a direction, to extend). "From the mouth there is steam" (to go - "to flow from somewhere"). "Blue color goes to your eyes" (go - "to face"). "The letter went exactly 20 days" (go - "to be, to be on the road"). "With faith, hope go to all" (go - "show readiness for anything"). "There are rumors about you" (go - "spread"). "Go to Russia goes to war" (go - "to speak out against someone").

single-valued and multi-valued words examplesUnambiguous and polysemantic words as a way of developing vocabulary

Words acquire ambiguity in the processhistory of language, which reflects changes in nature and society, their knowledge of people. As a result, people's thinking is enriched with new terms and concepts. The volume of the dictionary is limited in any language, so the vocabulary develops not only as a result of the birth of new words, but also due to the appearance of other meanings in previously known words. Unambiguous and polysemantic words, as well as examples of their use in context, can be found in explanatory dictionaries.

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