Thyroid cyst - what is it and how to fight it?
A thyroid cyst is a seal of the capsular type, inside of which there is a liquid. This pathology can be both small in size (diameter less than 1 mm) and huge (will be visible with the naked eye), in the form of a lump on the neck. According to statistics, more than 10% of the population of the entire planet suffers from this disease. Women are most affected by it.
Thyroid cyst: causes
The main factors that provoke the emergence of this pathology include:
- Lack of iodine in food and, consequently, in the body.
- An overrun of energy-supplying hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine).
- Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
- Unfavorable environmental conditions.
- Imbalance of hormones.
- Injury of the thyroid gland.
- Pathology of the thyroid gland of congenital nature.
- Intoxication of the body.
- Hereditary predisposition.
Thyroid cyst: symptoms
Most often, this pathology develops slowly and almost asymptomatically. As a rule, in this case, the cyst has a very small size, and, accordingly, it does not exert pressure on the vascular system. The main symptoms begin to appear when there is an increase in the formation of approximately 3 centimeters, which is already quite noticeable with palpation. Also symptoms include:
- Hoarseness, accompanied by its atypical timbre.
- Headache for no reason.
- Sensation of lump and sore throat.
- Swollen lymph nodes.
- Sore throat, which may indicate suppuration of the cyst.
- A visual increase in the outer contours of the neck.
- Increase body temperature to 40 degrees.
- Chills and fever.
Thyroid cyst: diagnosis
At the first suspicion of the presence of this pathology, it is necessary to consult an endocrinologist, who will conduct a clinical examination and palpation of the gland. Next, the patient will need to undergo a series of procedures, including:
- The study of the structure of the vascular gland.
- Needle biopsy with a thin needle with histology. Conducted to determine the presence of atypical cells.
- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland.
- A number of blood tests showing the level of thyroid hormones.
- If necessary, MRI gland.
Thyroid cyst: treatment
There are cases when such formation does not require removal. For example, if a cyst does not cause disruption of the thyroid gland, then the patient simply needs to visit an endocrinologist, who will monitor the growth and change of its parameters. He can also prescribe hormone drugs. In the case when the cyst has a direct impact on the work of the thyroid gland, it is prescribed the administration of a radioactive iodine drug for several months. But at the same time, the patient needs to periodically make ultrasounds, and when a large amount of antibodies is detected in the blood, the intake of iodine-containing agents must be stopped. In some cases, hemistrumectomy (removal of a part of the thyroid gland) has to be performed.