System-activity approach. Material for the report on pedagogical psychology
The policy, methodology and strategy of the Russianeducation clarify their historical reference points. A new Federal State General Education Standard (GEF) is being developed. In accordance with it, the Institute of Education is called upon to guarantee the socialization of the new generation, its adequate entry into society.
Such an imperative staging of strategictasks caused a change in the didactic paradigm. From the goals of mastering knowledge, skills and skills (ZUN), which prevailed in pedagogy for more than half a century, the task accent is reconstructed into a fundamentally new paradigm-systematically-activity.
To date, systematically-the activity approach in primary school, practically, is realized. The time has come for transformations in the main school.
A semantic field for understanding the SDP
Systematically-the activity approach (SDP) becomes a means of socialization. It ensures joint and conscious actions of subjects of education in the process of appropriation of historical values and traditions.
The psychological aspect of upbringing focuses onthe cultivation of personal senses, the breeding of values. The space of their development, generation and transformation is the joint activity of pupils with adult mentors.
Criterion of the educational process, in contrast to the educational, is the motto of modern times: "It is impossible to teach meaning. It can only be raised. "
In the new concept of education, new dialectical opposites arise: standardization and variability.
The variational factor of education is a property that allows to fully manifest the abilities of students in groups, and also gives the opportunity to take into account the individual qualities of individual students.
Standardization of education is a system of limitations of variability. The goal of the restrictions is to ensure equal opportunities for the subjects of education in the teaching and upbringing process.
Specificity of the PSD in the development of the GEF
Systematically-the activity approach dictates a number of provisions that need to be considered for the development of GEF.
- The individual can be understood only by observing the purposeful activity into which he is integrated, through which he develops, acts through which he lives.
- Adult, child and his peers injointly-divided activities create for each other and enrich the world view. It is this that allows the growing personality to solve vital problems of a wide range.
- The age stages of child development are characterized by the predominance of one or another leading activity. It determines the individual characteristics of students, depending on their age.
- A child can learn historicallyformed ways of human behavior, to develop abilities, to acquire values and social norms that have been verified by history only if it is included in purposeful and systematized activities.
Plans for analysis of activities in the development of GEF
When designing the GEF, it is necessary to design activities that form an idea of the world, based on four plans for consistently performing its analysis:
- motivational and value plan (IDC);
- the target plan (CP);
- operational plan (OP);
- resource plan (RP)
Systematically-the activity approach requires taking these plans into account when developing exemplary education programs.
Briefly about the specifics of each activity analysis plan.
1. Specificity of the IDC - he answers the question: "Why do you need this activity?".
The answer gives a picture of value orientations,which are based on the developing personality. When designing a standard and sample programs, it is necessary to give priority to the world outlook of the individual and the motivation for learning.
The system-forming characteristic of the educational standard in the course of the MSc analysis is the achievement of a personal result in teaching and upbringing.
2. Specificity of the CPU - he answers the question: "What is the direction of the activity?"
The answer gives a picture of the system of actions, in the course ofwhich is the assimilation of the content of education. When designing, it is necessary to pay attention to the cumulative use of universal educational activities (UAL), leading to a substantive result of learning - a holistic fundamental educational nucleus.
3. Specificity of the OP - he answers the question: "How are actions performed?"
The answer gives a picture containing specialized modes of action and operations. With their help, skills and skills are assimilated that guarantee the performance of training activities.
In any subject to be learned, the goal of the learning activity is a constant value, and the set of operations, including the technology of coming to the result, is a variable.
4. Specificity of the RP - he answers the question: "Due to what resource is the activity?"
The answer gives an exhaustive picture of the resources, without which an effective course of education and training is impossible: financial, personnel, regulatory and legal.
The choice of resources is influenced by the following factors:
- the necessary objective result (the determining condition is the goal of the action);
- the necessary personal result (the determining condition is the motive of the activity).
Resources, as well as education technologies, are the variable components in its standard.
Competence and ZUN
Systematically-the activity approach in education asserts,that ZUN are secondary in relation to targeted training activities. They (ZUN) must be generated, applicable and preserved, only based on the conditions of purposeful activity.
As far as the quality of knowledge is concerned, it is also derived from the diversity of purposeful ACMs.
In the SDP, the personality competence is formed in the following order: "competence - activity - competence".
Competence appears as knowledge in action. It manifests itself in the abilities to apply the acquired knowledge and skills to obtain effective results of activity.
Systematically-The activity approach reunitespedagogical psychology, methodology and didactics, two fundamental historical approaches: the current topical competence approach and the earlier, now - secondary, based on the ZUN.