Seismically active regions of Russia: where earthquakes are possible
Earthquakes are a terrible natural phenomenon,which can bring many troubles. They are associated not only with destruction, because of which there may be human casualties. The resulting catastrophic tsunami waves can lead to even more disastrous consequences.
For which areas of the earthquake earthquakepose the greatest danger? To answer this question, you need to look at where the active seismic regions are located. These are zones of the earth's crust, which are more mobile than the surrounding regions. They are located on the boundaries of lithospheric plates, where collisions or expansion of large blocks of the earth's crust occur. It is the shifts in the powerful strata of rocks that cause earthquakes.
Dangerous regions of the world
On the globe several belts are distinguished, which are characterized by a high frequency of underground impacts. These are seismically dangerous areas.The first of these is commonly called the Pacificring, since it occupies almost the entire coast of the ocean. Not only earthquakes are frequent here, but volcanic eruptions, that's why the name "volcanic" or "fire" ring is often used. The activity of the earth's crust here is determined by modern mountain-building processes.
The second large seismic belt extends alongthe high young mountains of Eurasia from the Alps and other mountains of Southern Europe and to the Sunda Islands through Asia Minor, the Caucasus, the mountains of Central and Central Asia and the Himalayas. There is also a collision of lithospheric plates, which causes frequent earthquakes.
The third belt stretches across the entire Atlanticocean. This is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which is the result of the expansion of the earth's crust. This zone includes Iceland, known primarily for its volcanoes. But earthquakes here are not a rare phenomenon.
Seismically active regions of Russia
On the territory of our country there are alsoearthquake. Seismically active regions of Russia are the Caucasus, Altai, the mountains of Eastern Siberia and the Far East, the Commander Islands and the Kurile Islands, Fr. Sakhalin. Here, tremors of great strength can occur.
One can recall the Sakhalin earthquake of 1995year, when two thirds of the population of the Neftegorsk settlement perished under the rubble of the destroyed buildings. After carrying out the rescue work, it was decided to not restore the village, and resettle the inhabitants to other settlements.
In 2012-2014, several earthquakes occurred in the North Caucasus. Fortunately, their outbreaks were at great depths. There were no casualties and no serious damage.
Seismic Map of Russia
The map shows that the most dangerousseismic areas lie in the south and east of the country. At the same time, the eastern parts of Russia are relatively poorly populated. But in the south, earthquakes are much more dangerous for people, because here the population density is higher.
Krasnoyarsk, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Khabarovsk and some other large cities are in the danger zone. These are active seismic regions.
Seismically active regions of Russia occupyapproximately 20% of the country's territory. But this does not mean that the rest is fully insured against earthquakes. The tremors by force of 3-4 points are noted even far from the boundaries of the lithospheric plates, in the center of the platform areas.
With the development of the economy increasesthe possibility of anthropogenic earthquakes. They are most often caused by the collapse of the roof of underground cavities. Because of this, the earth's crust is, as it were, shaken, almost like a real earthquake. And there are more and more cavities and cavities under the ground, for people for their needs extract oil and natural gas from the bowels, pump out water, build mines for the extraction of solid minerals ... And underground nuclear explosions are generally comparable to natural earthquakes in its strength.
The collapse of rock layers in itself canto pose a danger to people. After all, in many areas, voids are formed just below populated areas. The latest events in Solikamsk only confirmed this. But even a weak earthquake can lead to terrible consequences, because as a result of it buildings that are in an emergency condition, dilapidated housing, in which people continue to live, can collapse ... Also, the failure of the integrity of rock layers threatens the mines themselves, where debris can occur.
What to do?
To prevent such a formidable phenomenon asearthquake, people still can not. And even to accurately predict when and where it happens, too, have not learned. So, you need to know how you can protect yourself and loved ones during the tremors.
People living in such dangerous areas needalways have an action plan for an earthquake. Since the elements can catch family members in different places, there must be an agreement on the place of meeting after the termination of the tremors. The dwelling should be as safe as possible from falling heavy objects, furniture is best attached to walls and floor. All residents should know where it is possible to quickly turn off gas, electricity, water to avoid fires, explosions and electric shocks. Stairs and walkways should not be obstructed by things. Documents and a certain set of products and essentials should always be at hand.
Starting from kindergartens and schools, the population needs to learn the correct behavior in a disaster, which will increase the chances of salvation.
Seismically active regions of Russia showSpecial requirements for both industrial and civil construction. Seismic resistant buildings are more difficult and expensive to build, but the cost of building them is nothing compared to saved lives. After all, not only those who are in such a building will be safe, but also those who are close. There will be no destruction and blockages - there will be no victims.