Paris world: date, participants, conditions, results. Paris Peace Treaty
A century and a half ago, a document appeared in the European political system that influenced for a long time the foreign and domestic policies of the leading powers. In the capital of France, representatives from seven participating countries signed the Peace of Paris. He put an end to the Crimean War, which by then had drastically dragged out and exhausted the reserves of all the conflicting parties.
The document turned out to be humiliating for Russia. However, he gave impetus to many transformations, and also pushed Russian diplomats to conduct a diplomatic game.
Briefly about the Crimean War
Military events at first did not foreshadow a particular danger to Russia. The Ottoman Empire was weakened by internal problems and was hardly able to offer decent resistance to the enemy alone. Turkey at this time was called "a sick person."This explains the fact that in 1853 the Russian army was able to boast a series of victories. Particularly successful was the Battle of Sinop, which resulted in the destruction of the Turkish squadron.
Turkey was important to European countries. They decided to support it so that the last barrier, which prevented the entry of Russia into the Mediterranean Sea, was not destroyed. Therefore, France and England entered the war as allies of Turkey.
Austria was drawn into this rather complicated relationship. The state sought to strengthen its influence in the Balkans, while not allowing Russian troops to enter it.
The Allies attacked the Russian military forces on all fronts:
- on the White Sea, English ships shelled the Solovetsky Monastery;
- Anglo-French troops attacked Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky;
- Allied attack on the Crimea.
The most important was the southern front. So, the fiercest battles took place over Sevastopol. His defense lasted eleven months. After the battle on Malakhov Kurgan, the Allies won. By September 1855, the Anglo-French troops entered the destroyed Sevastopol. However, the seizure of the main port of the Black Sea did not bring the allies an absolute victory. At the same time, Russia took the city of Kars, which was a strategic point of Turkey.This saved Russia from a possible defeat and the conclusion of an unfavorable peace treaty.
Start of peace talks
In Russia, there was a change of rulers. After the death of Nicholas, the throne was occupied by his son. Alexander was distinguished by his innovative views. The death of the monarch was the reason to start communication between the rulers of France and Russia.
The Paris Peace (1856) was made possible thanks to the negotiations that began between Napoleon the Third and Alexander the Second. At the end of 1855, the French ruler conveyed to Alexander the Second that the war did not begin at the will of France, but because of "some insuperable circumstances."
Russian-French relations did not suit Austria. The empire did not take official part in the war, however, did not want a Franco-Russian compromise. Austria was afraid that it would not benefit from such an agreement. The Paris world was in jeopardy due to the ultimatum of Austria.
Ultimatum for Russia
The Austrian side sent demands to the representatives of Russia, according to which it would agree to the Paris Peace. If Russia refused these conditions, it would be drawn into another war.
The ultimatum consisted of the following points:
- Russia was obliged to stop helping the Danube principalities, agreeing with the new border with Bessarabia;
- Russia should have lost access to the Danube;
- The Black Sea was supposed to be neutral;
- Russia had to stop patronizing the Orthodox from Turkey in favor of the Allied great powers.
The emperor of Russia and his entourage long debated on this ultimatum. They could not allow Austria to start a war. It would tear and ruin the country. The Foreign Minister, on behalf of Alexander II, informed Austria of the agreement on the ultimatum. Further negotiations were moved to Paris.
Congress member countries
Before signing the contract in Paris, the congress was held. He began his work on 02/25/1856. What countries were represented on it?
Participants of the Paris world:
- France - Count Alexander Walewski (cousin of Napoleon the Third) and François de Burquine (who served as French ambassador to Turkey) spoke on behalf of the country;
- England — Henry Cowley and Lord George Clarendon;
- Russia - Count Alexei Orlov, Philip Brunov (he was once the ambassador to London);
- Austria - Foreign Minister Carl Buol, Gübner;
- Turkey - Ali Pasha (Grand Vizier), Cemil Bey (Ambassador in Paris);
- Sardinia - Benso di Cavour, Villamarina;
- Prussia - Otto Manteuffel, Garzfeldt.
The Paris world was to be signed after a series of negotiations. The task of Russia was that the points of the ultimatum were not accepted.
At the beginning of the congress, England and Austria were in opposition to France. Napoleon the Third was playing a double game, he sought to maintain friendly relations with the allies and with Russia. France did not want the complete humiliation of the Russian state. Due to the fact that there was no unity between the allies, Russia managed to avoid additional points to the ultimatum.
The Paris World (1856) could be complemented by the following points:
- Polish question;
- territorial disputes in the Caucasus;
- announcement in the Sea of Azov neutrality.
The final version was signed on 30.05.1856.
Paris Peace Conditions (briefly)
Paris treatise consisted of thirty-five articles, one of which was temporary, and the rest mandatory.
Examples of some articles:
- between the states that have signed the treaty, peace has since come;
- Russia undertakes to return the Ottoman possessions, which it seized during the war, including Kars;
- France and England are obliged to return to Russia the captured cities and ports;
- all parties must immediately release prisoners of war;
- it is now forbidden to have a fleet, an arsenal on the Black Sea;
- in the event of a conflict between countries that have signed the treaty, other states should not use force to resolve it;
- rulers do not interfere in the domestic and foreign policy of another state;
- the territories liberated by Russia will be annexed to Moldova;
- each country is allowed to have only two ships on the Danube;
- None of the states should interfere in the internal affairs of the Valakh principality and the Moldavian principality;
- The Ottoman Empire should not interfere in the affairs of the allied countries.
What did the conclusion of the Peace of Paris meant for Russia?
Results of the contract for Russia
The final treaty struck Russia a heavy blow. Its influence in the Middle East and the Balkans was undermined. The articles on the Black Sea and military shipping in the straits were especially humiliating.
At the same time, territorial losses cannot be called significant.Russia gave Moldavia the Danube Delta and part of Bessarabia.
The results of the Parisian world were not comforting for Russia. However, this agreement was the impetus for the reforms that were carried out by Alexander II.
Cancellation of an agreement
In its further diplomacy, Russia tried to mitigate the consequences of the Paris Peace (1856). So after the Russian-English world, the empire was able to return the Black Sea, as well as the opportunity to have a fleet on it. This became real thanks to the diplomatic skill of A. Gorchakov, who spoke out from Russia at the London Conference (1871).
At the same time, Russia has established lucrative diplomatic relations with France. Alexander II expected to receive support in the Eastern question, and France hoped for help in the Austro-French conflict. Relations between countries have deteriorated due to the Polish uprising. Then Russia decides to improve relations with Prussia.
By 1872, the German Empire strengthened its position. A meeting of three emperors took place in Berlin. The Berlin Treaty was adopted (1878), which marked the beginning of the abolition of the articles of the Paris World for Russia. Subsequently, she regained the lost territory and the opportunity to have a fleet on the Black Sea.