"Not" with adjectives - writing features
The continuous and separate writing of the particle and the prefix "not" with different parts of speech always causes difficulty. Someone relies on the principle: “If you can insert a word - write separately,” others try to avoid controversial points, preferring to use synonyms. Spelling “not” with adjectives is one of the simplest topics if you understand it. The main thing is to explain the material correctly.
The spelling “not” with adjectives is the rule that fully coincides with the writing of the same particle and the prefix with nouns and adverbs ending in “o”. Only eight points of the rule will have to be remembered, six of which are about separate, and the remaining two are about the consistent writing of a negative prefix-particle.
In no case should we forget that there are words with which “not” is always written together - it is part of the root, which cannot be separated from the word.So, "not" with adjectives that are not used without it, is always written together. For example: negligent, unprofitable, clumsy - the words “crappy”, “travel” and “stingy” do not exist in the Russian language, so that “not” cannot be separated from them by any means. Usually, this part of the rule of difficulty does not arise for anyone.
The second case, when “not” with adjectives is written together - the ability to replace an adjective with a synonym without a negative prefix. For example: shallow - small, bad - bad, rather big - big. It is important to remember that this rule works only with qualitative adjectives (they have synonyms and antonyms and form the degrees of comparison).
"Not" separately - common items
Separate "not" with adjectives - the rule is more voluminous, but no more complicated. Of course, you can go by contradiction: if it is not replaced by a synonym without “not” and is used without “not” - write separately, but such universal techniques do not always work, moreover, sometimes you need to be able to explain why it is written that way, and not otherwise.
First, the particle “not” is written separately from the adjective in the event that there is an opposition with the union “a”. For example: not big, but small; not wide, but narrow.It is important to remember that “not” with adjectives, after which the conjunction “but” stands, is written together (if the word fits the rule about the continuous writing “not”): a narrow but deep river; ugly but kind person; irrational, but the right decision.
Secondly, Russian is one of the few where double negation exists. It is with him that the “not” is written separately: not interesting to anyone, not at all funny, not secret to anyone.
Thirdly, there are some points of the rules for the continuous and separate writing of "not", which are universal for all parts of speech. Such is the point with "not at all", "not at all", "far from", with which this particle is always written separately. For example: not funny, not at all spacious, far from happy. Here, by the way, there is also its own difficulty: very often it is far from completely confused with adverbs measures and degrees, like “absolutely” and “absolutely”. When they are present, “not” is written together, for example: absolutely not cold, absolutely not far.
"Not" separately - features
A separate part of the rule consists of points on which “not” and adjectives are always written separately.There are no exceptions here, you just need to remember three short statements:
The first.Words that are written with a hyphen and “not” are always separate: not in a comradely, not in Russian.
The second.Relative (indicate a sign that can not be more or less) and possessive (belonging to someone) adjectives, taste adjectives (sour) and colors (pink) are written separately with "not": not winter, not mom, not bitter not black By the way, in order to distinguish the categories of adjectives, one can argue from the opposite: if an adjective does not have degrees of comparison, synonyms and antonyms - it is definitely relative or possessive and fits this rule.
Third.Adjectives are comparatively written separately too: no better, no freer, no more original.
In some cases, in textbooks about writing a particle-prefix "not" with adjectives together and separately, examples are given very poorly. Most often, the rules are given, but few exercises that can really help in memorizing these rules. In the classroom, teachers usually simply give a series of words, and the student must decide whether he will become a “non” particle or prefix for each occasion.Familiarity with the rule and subsequent practice will definitely help to consolidate the material covered.
The first exercise is the definition of the spelling "not" with adjectives. Examples: (not) beautiful; absolutely (not) funny; (not) wide, but long; (not) infusion; far (not) cheerful; (not better; (not) blue; (not) friendly; anyone (not) interesting; (not) deep, but shallow.
This simple task will provide an opportunity to either remember the rules or check your intuition - in any case, such exercises are considered the most common in working out this rule.
The second exercise is the explanation of “not” with adjectives. Examples of "separate": not blue; not more beautiful; not at all soft; not wooden; not fresh, but hard; not sweet; not in Turkish; not a bit big; not mom's; not at all attractive. Examples "together": non-coarse; unattractive narrow but deep; sad careless; uninteresting; ugly; uneasy, but fascinating; not angry; not cold
Answers to the exercises can be found in the rules themselves.
Writing “not” with adjectives is a completely simple topic. However, it is very important to pay due attention to it.The main thing here is to remember the points of the rules responsible for writing "not" with adjectives together and separately. Examples and practice will help to understand better and consolidate the material covered.