Leukocytes: the norm in children. The rate of leukocytes in the blood and urine of a child
Leukocytes are colorless shaped elements of blood of irregular rounded shape in size from 6 to 20 microns. They contain enzymes that are capable of capturing, splitting and binding foreign bodies and their metabolic products. This process is called phagocytosis, and pus in wounds is dead leukocytes.
Cells are larger than red blood cells and are able to move independently. Their percentage of the total is called leukocyte formula. They are produced in organs such as the spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes. And today we will talk on the topic "Leukocytes: the norm in children."
The total number of leukocytes: what affects this figure
The number of leukocytes depends on the person's age, time of day, nutrition, physical and psychological state of the body. After eating their number increases.This is the reason for the fact that blood tests are necessary only in the morning on an empty stomach.
Increasing the level of white blood cells indicates an existing inflammatory process in the body, and is called leukocytosis. But a low indicator of the content of white blood cells is called leukopenia and reports on pathological processes occurring in the blood-forming organs and a decrease in the level of immunity.
As mentioned above, the number of leukocytes changes with age. The rate of leukocytes in a child’s blood is higher than that of an adult.
Leukocytes in newborns
In newborns, leukocytes directly take part in immune reactions, prevent the development of bacteria, viruses and other pathogenic microflora in the body, and also contribute to the regeneration of damaged tissues. This is a very important factor, since the baby's body is still far from perfect, and therefore very susceptible to infections. This is especially true of crumbs, feeding on mixtures.
Normally, the content of leukocytes in the baby’s blood at birth is 9.4… .32.2 * 109/ l. The rate of leukocytes in a month-old baby should not exceed the figures of 9.2 ... .13.8 * 109/ l.
Why leukocytes are elevated
The norm in children may be exceeded.The following pathological conditions can cause such a deviation:
The norm in children in certain cases may deviate to the lower side. Reduction may indicate:
- damage to the bone marrow as a result of malignant neoplasms;
- acute leukemia;
- radiation sickness;
- some diseases of viral etiology, which include chickenpox, hepatitis, rubella, typhoid or mononucleosis;
- autoimmune diseases.
Leukocyte formula: what do deviations mean
However, only by the number of leukocytes it is impossible to establish the cause of the pathology. For this, leukocyte indicators are used.
There is a shift to the left, that is, an increase in the level of neutrophils and the appearance of myelocytes and metamyelocytes. All this indicates inflammation, hemorrhage, intoxication or the presence of purulent inflammation.
The shift of the leukocyte formula to the right with the appearance of promyelocytes and myeloblasts in infants is practically not registered, as it is most often observed in chronic leukemia and the presence of metastasis of malignant tumors.
An increase in the number of segmented neutrophils with a decrease in stab forms indicates the presence of problems in the liver and kidneys, and is also the first sign of anemia.
Leukocytes in children: generally accepted indicators
What is the rate of white blood cells in children? Thus, in a month-old child, this indicator will be 9.2 ... .13.8 * 109/ l. So it will remain throughout the first year of life, and then move to a range of 6.0 ... .17.5 * 109/ l.
From four to twelve years, the indicators must fit into the digital gap 6.1 ... 11.4 * 109/ l. During puberty (adolescence), it will reach 5.5 ... 9.5 * 109/ l.
Most often, parents pay attention to the level of hemoglobin in the child’s blood, and the number of white blood cells is often left without proper attention. You should not make such an error, since this indicator can tell you about the presence of serious health problems.
Physical activity as a cause of abnormality
The above figures are relatively conditional. Leukocytes in children can be increased not only due to the disease. The reason for this deviation may be excessive physical activity of the child.
Particular attention should be paid to children involved in mobile sports and participating in various tournaments. Exhausting intensive training before the competition can lead to a sharp increase in the number of white blood cells, which will weaken the child's endurance and can cause health problems in the future.
In adolescence, there is also a certain leukocyte rate. Leukocytes in children can go down due to a banal diet. Teenage girls, trying to meet modern standards, sometimes almost completely cease to eat normally. And this is the strongest stress for the body. Strong emotional and mental stress can also play on numbers.
You can correct the level of leukocytes, eliminating the cause, which contributed to the failure of their production, as well as the introduction of specific drugs. It is worth noting that these drugs have multiple contraindications, side effects and can be rather difficult to be tolerated by the body. Therefore, the feasibility of their use should be determined only by a doctor. Attempts to independently influence the level of leukocytes in the blood can have quite sad consequences for the health of the child.
Leukocytes in the urine of a child
Detection of elevated levels of leukocytes in the urine can be observed when eating large amounts of protein in food or taking excessive doses of vitamin C. By eliminating these drugs and adjusting the nutrition of the child, this indicator can be easily corrected.
However, most often the appearance of an excess of leukocytes in the urine can be the cause not only of inflammatory processes, but also of serious pathologies.
The rate of leukocytes in the urine of a child is from one to eight units. In boys, this figure is slightly lower, and is up to five units of leukocytes in the field of view of the microscope after centrifuging urine.
Often, research results may not be correct due to improper collection of material for laboratory research. The fact is that the mucous membranes of the external genital organs have a certain number of leukocytes, and if it is not enough to thoroughly wash the child, they will fall into the urine and will be taken into account during the tests. In such cases, the doctor prescribes a re-examination. However, if it reveals an increased level of leukocytes, this may indicate the presence of inflammatory processes in the urogenital system of the child.
The peculiarities of these processes are their latent course, until persistent serious kidney pathology is formed, caused by stagnant urine and reproduction of pathogenic microflora in it. Sometimes the disease is innate. In this case, the doctor must assess the level of danger and prescribe an adequate treatment, including surgical intervention.
Delayed treatment of urinary tract inflammation leads to irreversible changes in the kidneys, which are accompanied by the death of the parenchyma and its replacement with connective tissue. Thus, these organs cease to partially perform their function, which leads to disruption of the formation and outflow of urine, the strongest intoxication of the body, and renal coma.
Now you know what leukocytes are. The norm in children is now also known, so you can decipher the analysis of the baby by yourself. Be healthy!