Infiltration anesthesia in dentistry
The main and topical issue in the practice of dentistry remains the problem of pain and pain relief during and after surgery. Often, solely because of the fear of pain, the patient postpones a visit to the dental office, sometimes not assessing the seriousness of the issue.
But thanks to the development of science, including in the field of dental development, there are a large number of drugs and methods of their impact, which are able to completely eliminate pain and discomfort during surgical interventions not only of the dentist, but also of other specialists.
All existing methods of anesthesia or anesthesia in practice can be attributed to two types: general and local anesthesia.
Due to the use of general anesthesia, the entire body is exposed. The patient at this time is unconscious, his body is unable to feel not only pain, but also other effects.This type of anesthesia is rarely used in dentistry, as it can cause some complications and adversely affects the body. Epidural anesthesia (general) is used mainly for extensive surgical interventions.
Local anesthesia is more widely used in dental practice, as it has a local effect of the drug. This is the so-called freezing, in which only that part of the oral cavity is exposed to anesthesia, to which the effect of the anesthetic anesthetic has been directed. Moreover, the sensitivity of the receptors is preserved, they are able to feel touch, pressure, but the pain sensations are completely blocked.
Local anesthesia includes several subspecies, which are classified according to the area of direct exposure to the drug. Each type of anesthesia is carefully selected, taking into account all the individual characteristics of the patient.
Application anesthesia is provided with the help of specialized gels and sprays and anesthetizes only that portion of the mucous membrane to which the agent is applied.Typically, this type of anesthesia is applied before inserting needles or catheters into the mucous membrane to eliminate pain during piercing.
Infiltration conduction anesthesia
One type of anesthesia, in which the effect of the anesthetic is directed directly to the nerve, is anesthesia infiltration guide. This type of anesthesia is used in dentistry mainly in cases where there is a need for pain relief of the lower jaw. This is due to the fact that the lower jaw is very dense and has few openings through which the drug can diffuse. And this type of anesthesia allows you to act directly on the nerve responsible for sensations on the lower jaw. The need for infiltration conduction anesthesia arises in cases of emergency surgery in the gums.
Anesthesia infiltration conductor includes as a separate type of stem. This is the most serious method of pain relief. Its essence lies in the fact that the anesthetic drug is injected into the base of the skull or directly into the cheekbones and its purpose is to block the trigeminal nerve. It is the trigeminal nerve that is responsible for the sensitivity of the jaws and the oral apparatus.This type of anesthesia is very rarely used in dentistry. And in connection with its adverse effects, it justifies itself only with immediate surgical intervention in case of injuries, tumors or inflammatory processes in the bone tissues of the jaw system.
The most common and popular anesthesia in dentistry is infiltration. The application of this technique is in various in nature and nature of interventions on the teeth, jaws and soft tissues of the face and mouth. Pain relief in this case comes the faster, the closer the solution is introduced to the nerve that feeds the affected object. Local infiltration anesthesia has a great effect if it is used to anesthetize the upper jaw. This is due to the fact that the anesthetic drug penetrates better into the cancellous bone, which mainly consists of the upper jaw, as opposed to the lower jaw.
Benefits of Infiltration Anesthesia
Infiltration anesthesia in dentistry has a number of indisputable advantages over other types of anesthesia:
- is less dangerous for the patient due to very low concentrations of anesthetic drugs and their local effects;
- pain relief occurs faster than with other types of anesthesia;
- the absence of pain persists for a longer time, and its time can be extended by introducing new doses of the drug;
- rapid removal of anesthetic from the body, due to its low concentrations.
Despite all the advantages, infiltration anesthesia has a slight drawback. After the drug is injected into the required area, a change in the color of the tissue may be observed due to damage to the blood vessels or capillaries with a needle. This swelling or reddening can cause difficulties in the diagnosis of tissue pathologies in the operative or postoperative period.
In modern dental practice there are a huge number of drugs for local, including for infiltration anesthesia. All of them are classified according to certain characteristics and properties, according to the method of exposure and the active substance.
Many of them, by their nature, have side effects that must be considered individually for each patient.Contraindications are diseases of the cardiovascular system, allergic reactions to the drugs themselves and to their constituent components. It is necessary to realize that the risk when using anesthetics with the available contraindications may not be justified.