How to perform a linguistic analysis of the text
One of the most common types of analysisat the lessons of the Russian language is a linguistic analysis of the text. Its purpose is to reveal the basic stylistic features of the text, their functions in the work, and also to determine the style of the author.
Like any other analysis, it has its own algorithm, which is worth observing. So, how to make a linguistic analysis of a literary text correctly?
Of course, before considering the text, itsshould read. And do not look at it hastily, but read carefully, thoughtfully and with an expression. This will help understand the work, plunge into it with your head.
Now you can proceed directly to the analysis. Let's look at the basic, most common scheme.
- First of all, it is necessary to determine which functional style of speech the analyzed text belongs to. Is it scientific, artistic, or official-business, epistolary.
- Identify the main communicative purpose of the text being analyzed. It can be the exchange of information, the expression of one's thoughts, an attempt to influence the emotional sphere of the senses.
Further linguistic analysis of the textinvolves identifying the main language tools used in the work. These include:
- stylistic means of phonetics: alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia;
- vocabulary: antonyms, paronyms, synonyms, homonyms, as well as metaphor and comparisons, dialectal vocabulary, archaisms and historicisms, onomastic vocabulary;
- stylistic means of phraseology: these are phraseological units, proverbs and sayings, aphorisms and winged expressions, as well as all kinds of quotes;
- stylistic means of word formation: suffixes and prefixes;
- Morphological means of the language: it is necessary to find the polysyndeton and asyndeton in the text, indicate which functions in the text are performed by those or other parts of speech;
- Stylistic resources of syntax: types of proposals, the presence of rhetorical questions, dialogues, monologues and polylogues, to find incomplete sentences.
Linguistic analysis of the poem, as well as ballads and poems should be performed according to the same scheme. When analyzing a poem, one should pay due attention to the rhythm of the text, its sound.
Sometimes some other items may be included in the analysis scheme:
- History of the writing of the work. Sometimes the events that preceded its creation help to make the linguistic analysis of the text even more accurate.
- Identify the theme and problem of the work. The use of certain language tools is often associated with the problems of the text, its genre. For example, metaphor, metonymy, hyphenation was often used in satirical works deriding power.
- Give a description of the protagonists of the work. Quite often it helps to determine why the author uses a certain vocabulary in the speech of a character - chancellarism, slang, dialectic.
Linguistic analysis of the text assumesa deep knowledge of the basic language tools, an understanding of exactly which functions in the text they perform. In addition, it allows you to better understand the author, his plans and plunge into the world invented by the writer.