How to conduct an excursion?
Creating a new interesting excursion is not an easy task. It is necessary to break the planned event into two equal stages - this is the preparation and conduct of the excursion.
To develop a new excursion routeit is necessary to determine the purpose of the excursion, the view (in terms of content - overview, thematic, in the mode of movement - pedestrian, bus) and the objects of the show. This will determine the text of the excursion, its duration and the richness of the facts. This should deal not with one person, but with a creative group, which should include from three to seven people.
The first steps to planning an excursion
When objects are selected, proceed to collectioninformation on each of them and make the most convenient route for crossings (crossings, etc.). Now, from a large amount of information on the objects you need to compose an excursion text to each of them and an object card. Such a card is an indispensable part of the guide's portfolio, it contains a brief information about the object and, possibly, its photograph.
After writing excursion texts to objects, it is easier to create an interesting and laconic text of the excursion, to link the parts with competent transitions.
Methodical recommendations to the guide
After the preparation of the materials, a methodicalthe development of the excursion is a document describing the excursion, its main parameters. The method includes a theme, a route map, its length, type of excursion, safety rules, purpose, tasks and time. It also includes a table - an outline of the excursion:
- display object;
- time in minutes;
- the enumeration of the main issues, the names of the sub-topics;
- organizational guidelines;
- methodical instructions (logical transitions).
After that, the manual should be assured by the management, it serves as a confirmation of the quality of the excursion.
Briefcase of the guide
Before you conduct an excursion, you need to collect«A portfolio of the guide». This is the professional name of a set of visual aids for simplifying the excursion. These can be reproductions of pictures, photographs of people who are relevant to the topic, maps of enterprises or military operations, geographic maps, geological samples, product samples, tapes and other materials that help saturate the tour.
Requirements for materials
The criteria for selecting a visual material are low: preservation, unusual, expressive, necessary display and cognitive value. These are the main qualities of these criteria. It is very important to have good materials on objects that have not reached our days or have greatly changed. This will simplify the perception of the material. It should be borne in mind that reproductions, maps and photographs should be on a cardboard base, the image should be clear with a size of at least 18 * 24, preferably 24 * 30 cm.
Now that all the stuff is ready, let'sWe will understand how to conduct an excursion. Usually each guide has its own technique for conducting the excursion, based on personal experience and observations. But the method of conducting the excursion is a whole system of requirements and tasks, methods of telling and showing. All this is necessary to achieve maximum digestibility of the material. A well-developed methodology is a kind of list of rules for a guide when conducting a specific excursion. But you should pay attention to the fact that the methods of the excursion should be slightly different, depending on the age of the group and the interest of tourists.
Recommendations for age categories
For children of school age, it is better not to overloadtext facts, it will be more interesting to see the visual material and hear an interesting legend or story. Also it is necessary to prepare for the questions, from their children there is a lot. It is important to be able to keep the attention of sightseers-schoolchildren. For this you need to ask questions: "Do you know?"; "Have you heard about ...?"; "Do you like ...?", Etc. In this case, the guide has a dialogue with tourists, and so you can hold your attention for a long time.
Tourists of the older generation, as a rule,behave quietly and calmly, and it is difficult to understand whether the story is interesting to them or not. In the event that it is not professors and scientists, it is advisable not to overload the text of the excursion with a large number of dates and figures. Always give time for taking pictures, only five to seven minutes will be enough.
Guides of guides
There are generally accepted methods of conductingexcursions, they include narrative and show techniques. The show's methods allow to draw the attention of tourists to the most important details, to evaluate the general appearance of the object and its combination with the environment. The techniques of the story, in turn, help to recreate in the imagination of excursionists a more accurate picture of events. Key words: "Imagine ...", "It was ... a year ...", etc.
But apart from interesting material and a pleasant guide, the event should be safe.
Safety during excursions, especiallypedestrian, is very important. The basic rules of safety and behavior on the route can be read in the methodological development of the excursion. But the guide must notify the group about the safety precautions just before the excursion. Tell all the nuances of the route. The most banal phrases that you can not put your head in the window of a bus and jump out on the run, must necessarily sound. Since the responsibility for the group during the tour takes the guide, then tell about the rules of safety - his task.
What is worth to warn the tourists
Particular attention should be paid to the intersections of roadsand transitions (cable bridges, caves, tunnels, etc.). If the tour is conducted in nature, then you should warn about the rules of fire safety. It is also necessary to talk about the fact that you can not try mushrooms, touch the hands of various insects and animals, drink water from open water bodies and walk barefoot.
It is necessary to treat carefully the objects of lifelocal population and the surrounding nature in the place of the excursion. In addition, people who have been given preliminary instruction and medical examination, as well as people who do not have contraindications related to health, should be admitted to the excursions.