General scientific research methods and their characteristics
All forms of scientific knowledge are interconnected and mutually condition each other. Depending on the nature of the objects of study, methods and methods of their study, the characteristics of the problems that arise, they differ in their types. Their type is determined by the criterion of functionality. In total, it is customary to distinguish between three main types:
- Fundamental. This form of theoretical research is aimed at the search for fundamentally new ideas, a deep analysis of already existing knowledge systems and a critical approach to them.
- Purposeful. Scientists in this case, as a rule, deal with already formulated theoretical problems. They consider the already proposed solutions and evaluate their “viability”.
- Applied. Such studies are aimed at the practical application of already open laws and theories, although they themselves may lead to new scientific discoveries.
General scientific research methods of empirical level
Considering the specifics of scientific knowledge, it is necessary to characterize the main methods that are used here. We are talking about ways to build and validate a data system, as well as the totality and sequence of various techniques and operations by which facts are extracted. The general scientific methods of research are universal for all industries. However, they have their own specifics depending on the level of knowledge itself. So, for empirical research is characterized by observation. It is a system for recording and recording the properties and connections of an object in natural conditions. Another method of such a plan is measurement. In this case, the collection of information about the subject of the study occurs through the use of various instruments and devices. During the experiment, the phenomena are studied using specially selected or artificially created conditions.
General scientific research methods of the theoretical level
When studying a particular object, scientists often mentally (or even actually) divide it into parts in order to understand their characteristics and properties.This technique is called analysis. When they need to comprehend how the whole works, they again connect the sides of the object, “dissected” as a result of the previous method. This is called synthesis. Both of these methods occupy the first place in logical thinking and are carried out with the help of abstract concepts. Their relationship helps to identify the structure of objects and classify them by signs and types. There are also more specific theoretical general scientific research methods. This is an abstraction from certain signs in order to focus on others, as well as a generalization - when on the basis of a separate conclusion about the general. Logical methods such as induction and deduction are also used.
General scientific methods of research and the construction of scientific concepts
In order to understand how adequate our knowledge is, such research techniques have been developed that allow us to evaluate the practical meaning of scientific theories. One of them is idealization. This is a kind of experiment in the imagination, when the laws of the functioning of objects are discovered or summarized from a hypothetical minimum of certain signs.There is also an axiomatic method. So, certain provisions are taken as the original. All the rest are derived from them by thinking according to logical rules. The hypothetical-deductive method is also close to it. He puts forward hypotheses about the causes of the phenomena studied, and already from them the following conclusions are drawn. The historical method allows us to consider the development of the studied phenomenon in all its features.