Gable roof do-it-yourself drawings
If you have to choose the type of roof, it is important to consider its architectural design and functionality. There are many types of roofing systems, including hipped roofs. Such designs take not the last place. However, if you want to complete the work in a shorter time and not bother much with the process, it is best to choose a single or dual gable roof.
Varieties of hipped roofs
If you build a hipped roof, it is important to know about the varieties of such structures: they can be hip, half hip and hip. As for the hip roof, it has four slopes, two of them have the form of a plane in the form of a trapezium, while the other two have a triangular shape. That triangular rays and are called hips. This design is devoid of pediment, while the dormer or dormer windows are arranged on the slopes.
Half-hip constructions are systems where the hips have a broken plane, they consist of an upper triangle and a trapezium.
The last variety is hipped roofs. The system has four planes in the form of triangles that converge at the same upper point. Finally, a quadrangular pyramid is formed, based on a square or a rectangle. There is no fronton on such systems either. If you build a hipped roof, then to simplify the work you should not choose hip systems, since rafters in this case are very difficult to install.
Design of hip construction
The four-pitch roof should be built according to the project, which will take into account the possible loads on the roof system. Among them we can distinguish a lot of covering finishing material, the weight of the elements of the roofing pie according to the type of vapor barrier, insulation and waterproofing. It is important to take into account the snow load, the amount of summer precipitation, and the effects of wind. It must be remembered that the maintenance of the roof will require the need to move on the surface, this load must also be taken into account. They affect the system and the elements that are installed on the roof.These can be ladders, aerators, stairs, windows, and also rooflights. Among other things, it is important to take into account the slope of skates. The cross section and their length depends on these parameters.
It is worth considering the peculiarity that the choice of covering material will depend on the angle of inclination of the slopes. If the four-slope roof has a slope of 5 to 18 degrees, as for flat systems, then a roll coating must be applied. If we are talking about steeper slopes, the slope of which varies from 30 to 60 degrees, then you should use roofing coatings such as tiles, metal tiles, asbestos cement sheets or professional sheet.
Influence on the roof system
When building a four-sided roof with your own hands, it is necessary to take into account that the system will be affected not only by temporary but also by constant loads. The latter include roofing material, roof system and insulation.
Among the temporary loads can be identified snow, the weight of the equipment, the wind, the weight of the masters who will produce the service. If the slope of the roof is less than 60 degrees, then the snow load should be equal to 180 kilograms per square meter.However, at different times, this figure may increase to 400 kilograms per square meter. When a hip roof is built with its own hands, the slope of which exceeds 70 degrees, then the load that could turn out to be snow is not taken into account. But as for the wind load, then for the described areas it is 35 kg per square meter. If the system has a slope of less than 30 degrees, then it is conditionally considered that the force of the wind will have no effect. The weight of the covering material must be determined by multiplying the specific weight of the material by the area of the roof. The weight of related equipment is calculated in each case separately.
The four-slope roof system, as a rule, has a truss structure, based on coniferous wood. It is necessary to take a material that has a moisture content in the range of 20-25 percent. All wooden components prior to construction should be treated with flame retardants and antiseptic compounds. For the manufacture of rafters, you must use a trim board, whose thickness is equal to 5 centimeters.While the width can vary from 15 to 25 centimeters. You can use a rectangular beam that meets the previously calculated loads. In order to strengthen the rafters, you need to make the connection of two boards. In addition to the rafters, it is necessary to include struts, sprengeli, bolts, tightenings, as well as other structural details that are designed to ensure the strength and rigidity of the entire system.
Installation of truss system
If you need a four-sided roof truss, then you must begin the work with the installation of the truss system. Among other things, to use the support beam, which fits on the wall, it is called the mauerlat. It is placed horizontally, checking the position with the help of a building level, this will allow to exclude further violation of the roof geometry. After installation of the power plate, the ceiling beams should be installed. If there are wood in the walls of the house rafters can be attached to the upper crown of the building. Houses with a four-slope roof line up with one of the many features. It consists in the correct installation of diagonal rafters.They have the form of a ridge bar, which at the ends forks and abuts against the corner of the walls converging at an angle.
Recommendations for the construction of truss system
When diagonal rafters are installed, they need to be strengthened not only with the power plate, but also with the help of women. These elements act as truncated trusses and perform a function that is to support side rafters. If you have to work with a significant area of the roof, then you need to mount the truss trusses, they will begin to take on a certain part of the load, which turns out to be rafter planes. When mounting trussed trusses, it is necessary to install the puffs on which they will be supported. In some cases, they are fixed to the available interval beams. Among other things, it will be necessary to install struts, pillars, crossbars, tightening - they will create a rigid frame and will take on the share of the load from the rafters.
Nuances of work
The drawing of the four-slope roof, which is presented in the article, will help you understand the technology. Diagonal rafters should be strengthened to the ridge girder from above, the last element rests on the longitudinal beam of the ceiling.The lower ends of the slant rafters are mated to the mauerlat with the help of tubes and sidebars, which are supplemented with steel fasteners.
Once you manage to set and fix the diagonal rafter, you can begin the installation of ordinary rafters. The step between them should be determined by the method of predicting the expected loads, as well as the type of covering material. However, as a rule, it does not exceed 70 centimeters. Slanted rafters should be connected to each other at the top with a horizontal tie. It is called the bolt. You can perform this element from the board, the cross section of which is 12x4 centimeters. It should be placed at a distance of 1 meter from the top of the skate. The bolts are designed to improve the resistance to wind loads of the hip stump.
It is important to pay attention to the junction of trussed and mauerlat. These are the main points that are responsible for the reliability of the system. The overhang must be adjusted by the length of the diagonal rafters, so they are extended and fixed together. This is true if the length of the truss boards was not enough.
Rafters main skates
Calculation chetyrehskatnoy roofs on their own quite difficult. Due to the fact that the safety of the system operation will depend on this, it is preferable to entrust the work to the specialists. But the construction of the roof itself can be made independently. It is important to remember that installation begins with the installation of roof frames. Hanging or hanging rafters can be used for this, however, the latter are considered more preferable. This is due to the fact that the main load from the ramp is transferred to the ridge part. Visually, the roof will look more aesthetic if the angles of inclination, as for the main ramps, will be the same. For this reason, the first truss pair must be located at a certain distance from the angle of the power plate. This distance can be calculated simply: to do this, determine the size of the hip side, from the angle to the angle of the strapping. Then, the resulting figure should be divided by 2, and the available value should be deferred from the angle on the larger side. The marked point will be the place of installation of the first truss frame. In this case, it will be possible to achieve the desired, thus, the ramp will turn out with the same angles.
How to avoid mistakes
If the four-slope roof area was impressive, then the work will be much more difficult to produce. However, it is better to use a structure that has a ridge bar. If the central bearing partition is absent, then the central timber must be installed across the supporting beams. It is better if it is paired. Between the parts you need to put a distance that is equivalent to the width of the rafter foot. Racks should be installed on this beam, and the ridge bar will be held on the latter.
The roof of the four-slope roof is made at the last stage, however, up to this point it will be necessary to install angular rafters. They should be more in cross section than the ordinary components. The blank for the corner part should be 1.5 times larger than conventional rafters. This stock will be quite enough. It is important not to neglect the requirements for the section, as this is fraught with negative and even dangerous consequences. That is why the calculation is recommended to entrust professionals.