Ethical categories and levels of ethical principles
Ethics is an area of philosophical knowledge that considers the problems of good and evil, duty and justice.
The difference between ethics and morality
The concepts of "ethics" and "morality" should be distinguished,"moral". And although in everyday life they are often used as synonyms, each of them has its own meaning. So, ethics should be understood as a field of knowledge, and morality as an object of its study. The structure of ethical knowledge is distinguished by theoretical and normative ethics. It is she who develops norms of behavior and determines the criteria of morality.
Main categories of ethics
The main concepts are called categories. Ethical categories are the general characteristics by which human behavior is assessed. They include good and its opposite, honor and dignity, duty, conscience, love and happiness, and many others. Next, we briefly explain these and other categories of ethics.
Good is a fundamental concept thatreflects the positive value of phenomena, objects; this is the highest ideal in favor of which a person makes his free choice, exalting himself and improving himself.
Good, good - these categories of ethicsare inextricably linked with the notion of good. However, good is always good for everyone. When they say about the good and benefit, it is about the welfare of a particular person (group).
Evil is the opposite of good, or rather,deviation from it. Evil and good are unequal. Evil is subject to correction by good. Confrontation of these concepts, we observe almost all religious trends.
Debt is a moral necessity to act in a certain way.
Equality is based on mutual respect for equality.
Love is the perception of an object as an unconditional good.
Happiness is the highest good and the most valuable condition. This is the satisfaction with life in general, and the strong emotions that are being experienced at the moment.
At the same time, ethics does not set as its goal the attainment of good and happiness. It teaches us to distinguish true values from false ones and make our own choices.
Levels of ethical principles
All the categories of ethics listed by us can be viewed on three levels: personal, professional and worldwide.
1. Personal Ethics
This category is decisive forto the rest. It is these principles that are mandatory for compliance, and from them we are based on the definition of ethical behavior. They are eager to lay down in education. These are principles such as respect, justice, obedience to the law, reliability, honesty, bringing benefits to others.
2. Professional Ethics
We all know about the ethical code of doctors,psychologists, teachers, etc. Professional ethics are the principles that guide you in a certain environment. These settings are fixed by associations in writing. The principles of professional ethics are largely unified: confidentiality, impartiality, accurate follow-up of job descriptions, and others.
3. World Ethics
This level implies responsibility notonly for themselves, their actions, their professional activities and for the activities of their subordinates. Each of us, especially possessing power and power, influences what is happening all over the world. This also means taking care of the environment. So, at this level, ethical principles such as social responsibility, respect for one's environment, attention to environmental problems come to the forefront. In the Western world, even such a notion as sustainable development has emerged - that is, the socially responsible development of companies that takes into account not only the momentary impact of their activities on the environment, but also the consequences for the offspring.
A prerequisite for compliance with principles 2 and 3level is compliance with the principles of personal responsibility. At the same time, one should make a reservation: life situations are rather difficult, and principles, for example, of global ethics, can come to the fore.