Economic phenomena do not apply ... Types of economic phenomena
The term "economy" is rooted in the AncientGreece is a combination of two roots, "oikos" and "nomos". The first is translated from Greek as a house or a farm, and the second is a law. Consequently, economics is a set of laws, rules, norms of housekeeping. Interpretation of this concept for more than two millennia has changed enough and enriched.
Modern interpretations of the concept under consideration
First, the economy is a self-management economy(a collection of objects, means, things, substances of the spiritual and material world that are used by man to ensure the appropriate conditions for his life and meet existing needs).
This interpretation of the term -its perception as a created and applied life support system, as well as the maintenance and improvement of the conditions of the existence of the human race.
Secondly, the economy is a science (a body of knowledgeabout the economy and the associated human activity) on the rational use of various, usually limited, resources to meet the vital needs of a single individual and the society as a whole; about the relations arising between people in the process of managing.
Economics as a science and as an economyterminologically is delimited by the introduction of two etymologically related concepts - "economics" and "economics". The first is the economy itself (the economy in its natural manifestation), and the second is the economic science - the economic theory. This division contributes to a clearer understanding of the concept under consideration.
It is generally accepted that economics as a science wasFirst interpreted by the outstanding philosopher of antiquity - Socrates (470-390 BC). Unfortunately, he preached mainly in squares and streets, so there was no written confirmation of this. After the death of the philosopher, his work was continued by the closest disciples, Plato and Xenophon. They told humanity what Socrates was working on.
It should be clarified that the direct use of the term "economics" in Russian is considered to be incorrect, therefore it is replaced by the term "economic theory".
From the point of view of objective perception(as an economic system and a set of knowledge about it), individual authors also single out the third meaning of the economy: the relationships of people arising in the process of production, then distribution, then exchange, and finally, consumption of goods and services.
Thus, the economy is an economy, the science of it, and also about the management and relations between people in its process.
Interpretation of the concepts "economic phenomena and processes"
These are the results of the simultaneous influence of a largenumber of reasons for economic direction. Economic phenomena and processes are constantly born, evolve and destroy (are in continuous motion). This is their so-called dialectic. An example of such phenomena and processes can serve: exchange of goods, bankruptcy, finance, marketing, etc. But political marketing does not apply to economic phenomena.
The economic process is the stage of evolutionmaterial production, as well as its productive forces (direct manufacturers, their skills, knowledge, skills, equipment, etc.) and the production relations that are formed on their basis, including the relationship between ownership of the available means of production (private, cooperative, state, etc.) .), the exchange of activities on the basis of the division of labor and relationships in the process of distribution of existing material wealth.
Within the economic processes, twospecific layers of human relationships: the first - superficial (visible visually), and the second - the inner (hidden from observation). Research of visually visible economic relations is accessible to everyone, therefore from the very childhood at the person typical economic thinking based on real knowledge of the mechanism of managing is formed. This kind of thinking is most often subjective. It is limited to a certain individual's outlook and is often based on partial and unilateral data.
Economic theory tends to reveal the inner content and how some economic phenomena are interrelated with others (their causal relationship).
Classification of the processes under consideration
Socio-economic phenomena are divided intocorresponding types, as well as types, based on such criteria as the social nature and interests of the society, the nature of their implementation in a particular society. This division is conditional, but it helps to present their internal content and a number of features of their functioning.
Types of economic phenomena can be subdivided, proceeding from the following directions:
1. The nature of social actors allows us to distinguish three categories of economic processes and phenomena:
- class character (the main subjects and the driving force are the corresponding classes);
- national character (the main driving force - the nation);
- national character (subjects - social groups and strata of the population of the corresponding country).
2. Features of their content include the following socio-economic phenomena and processes:
- concerning the solution of the common problems of the scientific and technological revolution;
- regarding the solution of specific problems concerning the functioning of banking and industrial capital;
- in the field of solving problems of interethnic relations;
- concerning the solution of problems of civil rights and freedoms.
3. The scope and depth of their action distinguishes the following economic processes and phenomena:
- international and domestic;
- local and large-scale, etc.
Socio-economic phenomena can also be divided into: destructive and creative, transitional and stable.
In the economy, most processes are interrelatedbetween themselves. An important point is not only the identification of the fact of the interconnection of economic processes and phenomena, but also their forecasting and effective management by giving mathematical quantitative certainty. This is the job of statistics. At the same time, one group of indicators acts as the factors (causes) that cause the dynamics of another set of indicators, which are referred to as performance indicators.
The considered relationships are classified,based on the nature, dependence and method of studying communication. Economic phenomena do not include: the electrification of bodies, the decay of the nucleus, the solar bunny, snowfall, etc.
Methodology of economics
This science is about methods of cognition and research of the economic aspect of economic phenomena. It is customary to identify general and particular methods of cognition of economic phenomena.
In turn, the first include the following methods:
- Materialistic dialectics (all processes and phenomena are analyzed in continuous dynamics, constant development and close interconnection).
- Scientific abstraction (mandatory identification of significant features of the phenomena and processes studied, excluding secondary).
- Unity of historical and logical knowledge(consideration of the society from the point of view of historical sequence in addition to the logical method of research, revealing the sequence of appearance and evolution of economic laws and categories).
Particular methods of studying economic phenomena include:
- Economic-mathematical (definition of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of these phenomena and obtaining from the many variations of the most acceptable solution to the economic problem).
- The method of analysis and synthesis (complex economicphenomena are divided into the simplest components, which are subsequently subjected to detailed analysis, as a result of which the interrelations of the entire system as a whole are established on the basis of generalization of separately taken parts).
- The method of graphic representation (a visual representation of the ratios of various economic indicators under the influence of a dynamic economic situation).
- The method of public practice (the process, in the course ofwhich economic phenomena are first carefully studied, and then the scientific justification obtained in the course of this research is confirmed or denied by public practice).
- The method of induction and deduction (transition from private to general conclusions, and vice versa).
It is a systematized set of methods, techniques and methods that are used to obtain economic conclusions about a particular business entity.
Economic analysis is a system of specialized knowledge in the following areas:
- The analysis of economic phenomena, as well as processes related to their causal relationship between themselves, which are formed under the influence of subjective economic factors and objective laws.
- Scientific justification of business plans.
- Identify negative and positive factors, as well as quantify their actions.
- Disclosure of trends in economic development and determination of the degree of non-use of on-farm reserves.
- Adopt optimal and adequate management decisions.
Analysis of economic phenomena includes important points: the establishment of interconnection, interdependence and interdependence of factors and causes.
Unemployment as an example of an economic phenomenon
Its main reason is the change in the entrepreneurial demand regarding the constantly changing labor force under the influence of the magnitude of the accumulated capital.
Unemployment is an economic phenomenon within the framework ofmarket form of activity associated with production, which manifests itself in the fact that the economically active population does not have any work and stable earnings for reasons beyond its control.
Reasons of the considered economic phenomenon
They can be classified, starting from the point of view of various economic doctrines:
- Malthusianism (the main cause of unemployment is an excess of population);
- technological theory (any technical innovation "pushes" workers out of the production process);
- Keynesianism (lack of aggregate (effective) demand for goods and factors of production);
- monetarism (in the opinion of its representative F. Hayek, the reason for this economic phenomenon is the deviation of earnings and equilibrium prices from their stable level and the state of the orderliness of the market, which results in the emergence of an economically unjustified allocation of labor resources, which in turn leads to a state of imbalance in labor supply and demand);
- Marxist theory ("relativeoverpopulation, "which is caused, in its turn, by the increase in the scale of the organic structure of capital in the course of its accumulation, and therefore (within the exclusively capitalist mode of production) there is a relative decrease in the demand for labor.
In all the above theories, of course,the causality of an economic phenomenon such as unemployment is correctly noted. If we summarize them, we can get a fairly objective universal definition of the cause of its formation: a lack of aggregate demand for both goods and production factors, subject to an increase in the organic structure of capital.
Property as an economic phenomenon
Initially, it acted as a relationship betweenrepresentatives of the human race with regard to the use of spiritual and material goods, as well as the conditions for their creation, or as a historically established social way of alienating the good.
Property as an economic relationship emerges at the time of the formation of the human society.
On the process of monopolization of property,if you can say so, all forms of economic and non-economic coercion to work are held. Thus, the ancient mode of production was associated with non-economic coercion, backed by the ownership of the slave, Asian - ownership of the land, under feudalism - ownership of both the person and the land.
Economic coercion for labor activity is based on property directly on the conditions of production or on ownership of capital.
This economic phenomenon is educationvery complex and rather multidimensional. Historically, it is known that property has two forms: general and private. Their difference in the nature, forms and methods of appropriation, the level of socialization. Between them there is quite a complex interaction.
First, they have a common essential origin, andthey also, as a rule, are correlated as principal differences (their difference can not be brought to the perfect opposite). In this regard, private property can be transformed into a common, and vice versa. Secondly, the economic phenomenon under consideration, reflecting the profound processes of the economic side of the life of the society, can not but change.
Variety of basic forms of ownership
Private property is divided into the following types:
- single (individual);
- joint (divisible and indivisible);
- brought to the scale of an association or state, or a transnational monopoly.
The content of the common property is based onthe size of the community and its status. It can be both at the stage of the family (household), and at the level of the community or association, or the state, or society (people).
Economic phenomena, examples of which wereare given earlier (unemployment and property), are not single. This can include inflation, deflation, economic growth, globalization, all types of activities, etc. For example, such procedures as elections are not relevant to economic phenomena. Any physical or chemical phenomenon or process (melting of ice, evaporation, electrolysis, etc.) is not economic.
In the economy there are economicphenomena that are considered to be the simplest, arising before others and constituting the basis for the emergence of more complex ones. An example of this is the exchange of goods.
The central method of economics
He is modeling economic phenomena -their description by means of a formalized language using mathematical algorithms and corresponding symbols to reveal the functional interrelationships between these phenomena or processes. Here we mean the idealization of an object.
Feature - within the theoreticalresearch is the isolation of such a concept as an ideal object that does not really exist, but acts as a base in constructing the theory. In the process of constructing such objects, the researcher essentially simplifies reality, he deliberately abstracts from the inherent properties in reality or empowers them with virtual features. This makes it possible to more clearly see the connections analyzed and present them primarily in a mathematical aspect.
In accordance with the existing methodology, ifthere is a need to explain the phenomenon, then a mathematical model is constructed that reflects its main features. Then follows the conclusions, interpreted as a justification for the observed facts, or as statements that do not contradict the economic situation.
The next stage is the collection of empirical information forsubsequent approbation of the model. If we obtain acceptable results after numerical experiments, such a model can be considered that the theoretical result has been empirically confirmed.
Limitations of the methodology in question
It is expressed in the fact that the underlyingThe mathematical model is equipped with a limit of complexity. In fact, only one of the most important factors is snatched and described. Complication leads to difficulties in the practical application of the resulting mathematical assertion.
Also an important drawback is the fact thatAll the assumptions put forward in mathematics without exception can be verified in a formal way. This indicates the possibility of constructing both a useless, inefficient or even deliberately false model.
Mathematical thinking is an analyticalthinking. It breaks up the phenomenon into its component parts, which may result in inadequacy in relation to the expression of reality, especially with regard to social phenomena. The so-called formality of mathematics prevents the expression of the specifics of economic relations in society.
The economy of the country in 2015
In the opinion of the deputy chairman of the Central Bank, Ksenia Yudaeva,Today, the economic situation in our country is very difficult: the peak of inflation (the current figure is 8.9%) will be in the first quarter of this year (may reach 10%), while it will take even higher values for food products (about 12% ). According to her, despite the fact that the weakening of the ruble against the dollar amounted to approximately 40%, and to the euro - 20-30%, the inflation rate will not take on equivalent values, as today there is a switching of demand from imported products to domestic, which is increasing in the price is much slower.
Decision of OPEC regarding the preservation of the quota in respect ofoil production literally forced the Central Bank to consider a new scenario, according to which the country's economy will develop further (in the case of a medium-term decline in the price of oil to the value of $ 60 per barrel). According to all the same K. Yudaeva, in this situation there will be a large-scale restructuring of the Russian economy, coupled with import substitution and its diversification.
Daria Zhelannova (Deputy Directoranalytical department of Alpari) also believes that the highest inflation rate and a significant ruble weakening will be observed by the end of winter 2015. She advises not to burden yourself with loans and not to buy foreign currency for at least six months. D. Zhelannova suggests that it is best to simply wait for this period.
So, in the end it is worth recalling once again thateconomic phenomena (examples: unemployment, property, corruption, inflation, etc.) are formed under the influence of a large number of certain economic reasons. As for economic processes, here it is a question of any process that affects the production, exchange and consumption of material goods.
It is worth remembering that the election procedure does not apply to economic phenomena, as well as any chemical reaction or physical process.