Australian Industry: A Crisis Despite
The industry of Australia is a developed economy of Western type in structure, organization, philosophy and traditions close to Europe and the USA. However, they are more resistant to the crisis and isolated on themselves.
Empty Australia was complete
The first explorers of the Australian continent were disappointed. A study of the northern and western shores of Australia revealed no obvious natural wealth, which delayed European colonization for almost three hundred years since its discovery.
Only after a thorough study of the continent, it was found that almost all the wealth, from recreational to oil, is located in the southeast part. The first British colonists revealed numerous deposits of various minerals, and the conditions for the development of agriculture here are higher than the world average. The most place for becoming a successful industry in Australia. Now it is the most developed in all respects region of the country.
Here are the industries in order of importance for the country:
- electric power industry;
- food industry;
- metallurgy and metalworking;
- chemical industry;
- mechanical engineering.
Australian mining industry
The historically established backbone of the Australian economy. The impetus to the development of this industry were found quite large deposits of gold. In search of new gold mines, deposits of coal and various ores (almost all available in the crust, up to uranium deposits) were discovered. In the late 1950s, development of oil and gas fields began in the west and southeast. In 1979, it was discovered that Australia is also rich in industrial diamonds. But gold today is not in the foreground.
Australia is the largest exporter (mainly to Japan) of black and brown coal in the region. Since the country is poor in water resources, coal is the basis of Australia’s energy. Up to 70% of energy is generated at CHP located near deposits. This is why Australia is an active opponent of the famous UN resolution on measures to deal with climate change. After all, the country is one of the most active "emitters" of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, and in the coal industry a significant part of the workforce is employed.Work to reduce the "coal" dependence is underway, but it is unlikely that something will change in the foreseeable future.
In addition to coal, Australia is one of the leaders in the extraction and sale of bauxite (aluminum), iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese and tungsten. The latter is practically not in demand on the continent - 99% is exported. Export of other PIs reaches at least 50% of the production.
Australia has up to 30% of all uranium ore reserves in the world. However, the development is limited to the complexity of production and environmental requirements. Nevertheless, here Australia is one of the leaders in exports.
The only wealth that is not exported is oil and natural gas. Previously, the country purchased these products abroad in large quantities, but gradually with the development of its fields, it will soon, apparently, reduce the external oil and gas demand to zero.
No industrialized economy is possible without powerful energy. Despite the shortage of energy-intensive hydro resources (everything is fine only in the southeast), energy needs are met by CHP. More actively than nuclear energy could be used.There are only three nuclear power plants in the country. The problems are connected with a powerful public opinion, opposed to nuclear energy. It is difficult to fight this, although in reality coal-fired electric power industry causes far more harm to the environment of the continent.
Metallurgy and metalworking
Processed raw materials - semi-finished products - are more expensive than just mined. Therefore, almost from the very beginning of mining, the ore processing sector has been developing and developing at a rapid pace. Today, metallurgical enterprises are among the most advanced in the world both in terms of the volume of output and the technologies applied. The industry mainly works on the domestic market, but a considerable part of metals is exported.
The same can be said about the chemical industry. Possessing an excellent raw material base, it produces everything that modern industrial chemistry can create. The export / import ratio can also be compared with the metallurgical one.
Part of this industry also works for export. The natural conditions of the continent are well suited for breeding cattle.Therefore, meat processing plants - the leaders of this industry in Australia. Australian meat is happy to be bought outside the Pacific region.
Probably the most relatively undeveloped industry in Australia. It works almost exclusively on the domestic market. The exception is the products of sheep wool and the actual wool that has undergone primary processing. In the export of sheep wool, Australia is also a "world champion".
Australian car industry
Australia's automotive industry can be called a unique phenomenon. With the support of the government of the country, it is trying to become competitive not only on the continent, but also in the world. In Australia, due to the country's large size and its uneven development due to climatic reasons, the demand for low-cost "home" cars (Iveco), as well as those produced in the Australian branches of well-known brands, especially heavy trucks (for the Iveco PowerStar model (in the photo below). ) there are even orders from abroad) is big, but in the world, to put it mildly, not very much. But who knows what will happen? Especially if you look at how Australians manage their economies wisely.Despite not the first year of the global crisis, for every new 365 days it adds in terms.
In general, briefly about the industry in Australia can say the following.
Australia’s industrial power is export-oriented, with no damage to its own population. It satisfies the internal needs of the country with interest.
The future of Greenland’s industry lies in solving the problems of Australia. The development of still undeveloped territories, the dismount from raw material dependence, the development of environmentally friendly industries and alternative energy sources. Australians are worried about the practical absence of the country in the field of innovation and information technology, but this is still not an industry.