Antonyms: examples of words, concept, exercises
Cold and hot, shallow and deep, useful and harmful, independent and dependent, summer and winter, love and hate, joy and sadness, take off and land, start and end, good and bad, serious and frivolous. What do you think these are words? Antonyms! Examples of such words, as well as the actual concept of "antonym" we will present in this article.
So, in the vocabulary of the modern Russian language there is such a thing as "antonyms". Examples of words with opposite meanings can be reduced to infinity. Sweet - bitter; cute - disgusting; rise - go down; vanity - peace. Such words are called antonyms.
The examples of words given above prove that only such words that are one and the same part of speech can be called antonyms. That is, the words "love" and "hate", "always" and "frequent", "lighten" and "dark" are not antonyms. Can the adjectives "low" and "happy" be called antonyms? No, because words can be compared only on one basis. And in our case there are two.In addition, if antonyms denote some quality, then this quality they must possess or not possess equally. Thus, “frost” and “heat” are not full-fledged antonyms, since frost is a high degree of cold, and heat is the average degree of temperature above zero.
Antonyms-nouns: examples of words
In Russian, antonyms-nouns are quite common. It should be noted that nouns that have antonyms have in their meanings a quality tone.
For example: principle - unprincipled; minus plus; income - loss; exit - entry; ascent - descent; day Night; light is darkness; the word is silence; sleep is reality; dirt is purity; captivity - freedom; progress - regress; success is failure; youth is old age; purchase and sale; the beginning is the ending.
Adjectives with opposite meaning
Among the adjectives you can find the largest number of pairs of antonyms.
Examples of words: empty - full; daytime - night; perky - sad, happy - unhappy; light heavy; simple - difficult; cheap - dear; paid - free; confident - unsure; the main is secondary; significant - trivial; real - virtual,native - alien; obstinate - docile; agitated - calm; smooth - rough; artificial - natural; favorite - unloved; raw - dry.
Adverbs in this regard are not inferior to adjectives. There are also many antonyms among them.
Examples of words: easy - difficult; cheap - expensive; immediately - gradually; stupid - clever; trite - original; long - not for long; enough is not enough; intelligibly - inaudible; right - wrong, cold - hot.
Antonyms: examples of words in Russian
There are in the Russian language and verbs, opposite in meaning.
For example: scold - praise; take - give; work - idle; to hurt - to recover; get better - lose weight; refuse - agree; to teach - to wean; notice - ignore; to lose - to find; increase - decrease; earn - spend; dig in - dig up; leave - go back; say goodbye - hello; turn around - turn away; iron - knead; take off - put on; dress up - undress.
Thus, almost all parts of speech are rich in antonyms. They can be found even among the prepositions: in - from, on - under, etc.
To consolidate the material studied, it is useful to perform several exercises.
1. Read the poem of a famous children's poet and find in it all the antonyms:
Here is a taratorka for guys:
When they are silent, do not say.
When sitting in one place,
Do not travel.
That far, not at all close.
And high, not very low.
And how to come, not having left.
And eat a nut, since there are no nuts.
Nobody wants to lie standing.
Pour from empty to empty.
Do not write on white chalk
And do not call idleness case.
2. Insert antonyms instead of dots:
- ... feeds a person, and ... spoils.
- ... ... does not understand.
- ... by body, yes ... by deed.
- ... for food, yes ... for work.
- ... saddled, but ... jumped.
- Day to Day: Today ..., and Tomorrow ...
- Prepare a cart ... and sleigh ...
- One brother ... and the second ...
- Today the sea ... and yesterday was quite ...
- Alyosha has a light character: he remembers ... and forgets ...
- You're always like that ... why today ...?
- The root of the teachings ... but the fruits ...
Exercise number 1:silent - they say; far close; high low; come - leave; lie down - stand; idleness is a business.
Exercise number 2:
- Labor, laziness.
- Sated, hungry.
- Mal is great.
- Healthy, sickly.
- Early late.
- Heat, frost.
- In the winter, in the summer.
- Talker talker.
- Stormy, quiet.
- Good evil.
- Cheerful, joyful.
- Gorek, sweet.