Alabyano-Baltic tunnel: traffic pattern and other nuances
The increase in the flow of cars in the capital of the Russian Federation has led to the development of projects for new transport arteries of the city. The best option was to lay tunnels in the most popular destinations. In the northern part of Moscow, the North-West Khorda was designed, part of which was the Alabiano-Baltic tunnel.
Beginning - in the middle of the last century
In the 1950s, according to the general plan of Moscow, construction of the fifth transport ring was foreseen. For this purpose, Halabyan, Baltic and Bolshaya Akademicheskaya streets were founded. Connect them to the overpass over the railroad tracks.
Due to circumstances, this project had to be suspended. As a result, the construction of the bridge was not started. Only 50 years later, the new authorities of the capital paid attention to the problems of car traffic in this part of the city and decided to connect the three mentioned streets, but not with a bridge, but with a tunnel, which became part of the reconstruction of Leningradsky Avenue.So the Alabiano-Baltic tunnel was designed. The scheme of movement on it assumed a connection under the railway track of Halabyan and Bolshaya Akademicheskaya streets. This would unload traffic on streets that were not intended for such a flow of cars.
The specifics of the tunnel
According to the project, the total length of the tunnel is 1.935 km, while its underground part is equal to 1.565 km. To be able to lay it under the old buildings, the engineers calculated its maximum depth - 22.5 m. Together this gives the modern Alabyan-Baltic tunnel. The scheme of movement on it involves three lanes in each direction with a fork in the direction of Leningradsky Avenue.
Full launch of the facility will unload traffic on Volokamsk and Leningradskiy Prospectus by about 25%. This is achieved by the fact that the design capacity of the tunnel is approximately 5 thousand cars per hour.
This is a complex engineering structure, since it is located under the busy Leningradsky Avenue, two tunnels of the Zamoskvoretskaya metro line, the routes of the existing railway in the Riga direction and two automobile tunnels. This dictates the specifics of its design and construction.After all, until the moment of opening, none of the specified transport facilities were closed and the traffic on them was constant.
In 2006, according to the plan, they began to implement the project “Big Leningradka”. An integral part of it is considered Alabiano-Baltic tunnel. Its construction also began this year.
By all accounts, by the end of 2009 he should have started to let cars pass in both directions. Already in 2007 it became clear that the contractors would not meet the deadlines. Due to various circumstances, the opening of the tunnel was postponed from year to year. Constantly appeared in the press information that in the near future construction will be completed.
For almost a decade, the Alabiano-Baltic tunnel was built. By the end of 2014, all construction work has been completed. But due to circumstances, it is not yet open to its full capacity.
In September 2013, the authorities of the capital were present at the surrender of the first part. Since then, it has been functioning in half. On 3 of 6 lanes of his cars are already moving, but in one direction only. It was planned to launch the second half in January 2015, but in March it is still working as before.
Tunnel in the modern city
As mentioned earlier, the Alabyano-Baltic tunnel in Moscow passes under other transport interchanges. Therefore, its construction had a number of specific points.
At the time of the construction work movement in the subway did not stop for a minute. There was a huge risk of subsidence and collapse. To avoid danger, a huge concrete slab, weighing several hundred tons, was created especially for the tunnel. It maintains the arch, strengthening it. During the construction of the metro line, no special changes and drawdowns were noticed, which indicates the professionalism of the designers and contractors.
Under the Railways
With the railroad tracks, things were a little more complicated. The load on the ground in this place is greater than under the subway. Therefore, it was decided to partially change the traffic pattern in this area.
At the time of the construction work, traffic was halted on half of the railway tracks, and all trains were sent along a different route. Then, to continue the construction, the second part was released.
This made it possible in the shortest possible time without incidents and high costs to lay a tunnel under the railroad tracks.
The project of the Alabyano-Baltic tunnel also foresaw that it should pass under the Tarakanovka river, which is completely enclosed in an underground collector.
When the builders reached it, it turned out that the old structure would not survive. I had to urgently solve this problem. In addition to the main project, the builders completely replaced the collector and cleaned Tarakanovka. Now the Alabyano-Baltic tunnel passes under the renewed bed of an ancient small river. This allowed him to be protected from the risk of flooding in the future, but increased the total cost of construction.
PE and other troubles
The Alabyan-Baltic tunnel did not go without unforeseen situations. Its opening was postponed also because of big and small state of emergency. These include 2 large floods.
In July 2009, part of the tunnel was flooded with all the equipment with heavy rain. Construction work had to be stopped until the water was pumped out, and the damaged equipment was replaced with a working one. The same situation was repeated at the end of May 2014. Then, due to a malfunction of the drainage systems, heavy rains managed to repeat the same situation.
At the end of December 2011 for some reason, 20 square meters.m wall collapsed. At that time, there were 4 people near it, one of whom died under a landslide.
From tunnel to bankruptcy
The initial contractor who built the Alabiano-Baltic tunnel was NPO Cosmos. The prolonged construction of this object, the constant change in its value and other projects not completed by the contractor led to the fact that in 2014 the company was declared bankrupt.
Further construction has become impossible. The authorities of the capital announced a competition to find a new artist works. They became the "Mosinzhenproekt." But the process of changing the contractor significantly delayed the time of commissioning of the object.
Although in fact the work of this enterprise began almost immediately after his appointment by the executor, the problems with documentation continue. And all because, according to the law, it is necessary to meet all deadlines in order to correctly change the contractor on the state order. It is for this reason that a completely finished tunnel cannot be opened, and the solemn ceremony is postponed indefinitely.
Total cost of work
It is already known that the Alabiano-Baltic tunnel, when officially opened, will be valued at 72 billion.rubles. He has already been named the most expensive long-term construction company in the Russian capital.
At the end of 2011, about 54 billion were allocated to it. It is difficult to say the exact amount, since the financing was carried out in the complex of the restoration works of the Big Leningradka project. In 2014, when a tender was announced for the change of contractor, the Moscow authorities appointed the residual works to more than 7 billion. The winning company pledged to do all the work for almost 5 billion.
Thus, the construction, which was delayed for almost 10 years, cost a lot of money. But this is not terrible, because the tunnel must unload traffic on neighboring avenues and streets, with which it already partially copes.
North West Chord
When construction began, no one yet knew that in the future the Alabyano-Baltic tunnel would also become part of the North-West chord.Interchanges in this part of Moscow are extremely necessary. Therefore, in the process of designing the most important chord for the capital, it was decided to include a new, almost completed tunnel in it.
Thus, it turns out that the total duration of the new junction complex will be about 29 km. This will allow to unload the total flow of cars in the North-Western part, connecting the NEAD, the CAO, SZAO and CJSC together, by 20-30% at rush hour.In general, this does not solve all Moscow problems with traffic jams. But this is a good start on the way to unloading traffic and building new and very important for the city, road junctions.