Age categories of the population. Age categories of people by years
Age is not only quantitative andabsolute concept. It still exists as a stage in the process of psychological and physical development. And quite a long time. From birth to death, to be more precise. Tens of years, and some - about or more than a hundred. And, accordingly, the age categories and periods of life could not not be formed, which in many respects overlap with each other. However, this can be told in more detail.
If we talk about age categories, thenstarting from the earliest period. And this, of course, is infancy. Which is also divided into certain categories. The first period (neonatal) lasts from the moment of birth until the first month. It is defined by a weak emotional development - the child is too "generalized" state. And the infant himself demands the constant participation of the parents in every process of his life.
The second period is from two to three months. It is characterized by a more developed emotional system. You can see that the baby is already able to grieve and smile at familiar people, even focus on the face.
The next period lasts from 4 to 6 months. The child has already more or less strengthened emotional and sensory system. He recognizes people who are constantly next to him, distinguishes familiar from strangers, knows how to determine the direction from which sounds emanate.
In the period from 7 months to 1.5 years in a childformation and training of motor abilities takes place. When his age exceeds the mark of 2 years, the time of increased motor activity begins. And the child himself passes into another age category.
This is a rather long period. Which is divided into several more. For early childhood (from 1 to 3 years) and preschool age (from 3 to 7). The first category is often called the nursery period. This conditional division, which is associated, mainly, with social causes. A child who first went through a nursery, and then through a kindergarten, does not experience further difficulties with entering a new collective (class in school).
If we talk about age categories, then thiscell, like schoolchildren, can be considered one of the most difficult psychologically. Since it is during the training period that the personality of the child is formed and a certain "foundation" is laid, which will play a role in the future.
In addition, children belonging to the school agecategories, are intensively growing in all plans. There are such processes as ossification of the spine and the growth of the skeleton, muscle tissue grows, the nervous apparatus of the muscles finishes forming, but the lung tissue, the lung capacity and their volume increase. And, of course, the early age categories of children are characterized by functional development of the brain. By 8-9 years the child already has a firmly established type of higher nervous activity.
It should also be noted with attention, telling about age categories. This period is mixed. Girls are considered teenagers from 10 to 18 years. Boys - from 12 to 18.
Children of this age are experiencing turning pointsin the development of the body, because there is sexual maturation. The endocrine system changes, as does the functionality of the organs. Children begin to grow more intensively, there is an increase in body weight. The production of hormones increases, which affects psychosocial development. The adolescent period ends with the end of puberty. And the children go to another age category.
Youth and youth
Here the psychologicalaspect, not biological. And opinions diverge. So, for example, the psychologist E. Erikson believes that youth lasts from 13 to 19 years, after which comes the youth, which lasts until the age of 35. During this period, the person begins to "mature", realize himself and, as a rule, enter into a relationship.
But if you turn to the classification of the APN USSR,defined in 1965, then, after the adolescent period, adolescence follows. But for girls it starts at 16 and ends at 20, and for guys lasts from 17 to 21.
If we talk about the biological component, thenpeople of this age category there is a final completion of physical development. But only the guys have not yet reached the strength and strength of an adult man. The same applies to girls. The figure of young ladies is clearly different from those of women who have passed through childbirth. And here in the biological plan the concept of youth is conditional precisely for this reason. A person may be 19 years old, and, in fact, psychologically she is considered a girl. But if she gave birth to a child, then her body loses youth. And call her objectively a woman, not a girl.
Or, as it is still called, maturity. Telling about age categories of people by years, it can not be ignored. It is believed that this is the longest period. Traditionally, from 21 to 60 years for men, and from 20 to 55 for women.
The table of age categories shows that heis divided into two periods. The first - from 21-20 to 35. It is characterized by stable functioning of the body. After 35, the average people begin neuroendocrine restructuring. The main physiological indicators are slowly but progressively reduced. Perhaps the emergence of primary signs of diseases, which usually overwhelm older people. But if a person is healthy, leads a correct lifestyle - then all this can be postponed indefinitely. Again, age categories of people are one thing, but how they manage their health is another. In 20 years you can look at 35, and vice versa. At some "individuals" and in 25 kidneys refuse.
Specificity of Maturity
Specialists studying age categoriesof the population, it was possible to find out a lot of interesting and useful data. For example, the mortality of people of adult age from malignant formations has tripled in the past 60 years.
And because of the fact that the second period of maturitypeople are increasingly beginning to feel fatigue from the constant work and the same way of life, begin to manifest a different form of pathology. This traumatism (household and production), tumors, cardiovascular ailments. In many respects, due to the fact that a person ceases to critically evaluate himself, he seems to be as young and full of energy as he was in 25. But if he is 50, then he can no longer do anything as he does with it consulted about 20 years ago.
And cardiovascular diseases aresad topic. They arise due to the fact that constantly accompanies the modern person in life: stress, nervous tension, depression, irrational nutrition, lack of motor activity, smoking, alcohol. In addition, during the middle age, additional mental stresses are added, which appear for personal and family reasons.
It includes men and women whowas 60 and 55 years old, respectively. Signs of aging are growing: the structure of hair and skin changes, a different gait becomes, the shape of the figure changes. The retirement age is accompanied by a decrease in the mass of the heart and its frequency cuts. Blood vessels lose elasticity, a certain amount of blood is lost too. The respiratory system also changes. The chest cell because of changes in the tendons and ossification of the ribs ceases to be as mobile as before. And the lungs, respectively, can not cope with their task still "smartly".
But, of course, here, too, everything depends on physiology. People can look great and feel great at 65 and 70. Again, the way of life and how much people are "tired" during their existence is important. Age categories of people by year are one thing. But how they feel psychologically is quite another.
This is the last period of life, he stands outconditionally. Lasts usually from 75 to 90-100 years. But this is in our time. Generally, the age periodization is a strange and ambiguous topic, especially if it concerns people who are "over 35".
Remember, at least, the end of the XIX century. Then the deep old men, who are now on time to go to rest, were people 45-50 years old! And this, in fact, is inspiring in our time. It turns out that old age gradually "retreats", and the duration of young ages as a result of this increases.